Upcoming Book
Books     Social Sciences     Rural Development by NGOs in Bangladesh

Dr. Aka Firowz Ahmad

Chapter – 1

Introduction                                                                                                  21

Background                                                                                                    21

NGO Intervention in Rural Development Sector                                        22

Requirements for Effective NGO Intervention                                           23

A Look into Literature                                                                                  24

Objective and Methodology                                                                         31

Outline of the Book                                                                                       32


Chapter – 2

NGO Approach to Rural Development: A Theoretical Analysis          35

Conceptual Framework of Rural Development                                          35

Development Management System                                                              39

The Phenomena of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)                45

Factors Responsible for the Growth of NGOs                                            48

Stages of Growth of Non-Governmental Organizations                            50

Categories of Non-Governmental Organizations                                        53

Role and Functions of Non-Governmental Organizations                         54

Non-Governmental Organizations in Rural Development                         58

Basic Features of NGOs’ Approach to Rural Development                      63


Chapter- 3

Dimensions of Non-Governmental Organizations in Bangladesh       67

Pre-colonial State of Non-Governmental Initiatives                                  67

NGO Efforts during British Colonial Regime                                             69

NGOs in Pakistan Regime                                                                            71

NGOs in Bangladesh Regime                                                                       72

Number of NGOs in Bangladesh                                                                 74

Categories of NGOs Working in Bangladesh                                             77

Generation of NGOs in Bangladesh: Rural Development Perspective     81


Chapter – 4

NGOs Micro-credit Approach to Rural Development                           85

Functional Coverage of NGOs in Bangladesh                                            85

Factors Responsible for the Emergence of Micro-credit Program as        87

NGO’s Approach to Rural Development

Poverty and Need for Capital                                                                       88

Policy Shift of International Financing Agencies                                       88

Government’s Support and Sponsorship                                                    90

NGOs’ Urge for Internal Resource Mobilization                                        91

Extensiveness of Micro-credit Program                                                       92

Micro-credit Realities with PKSF                                                                92

Micro-credit Realities with the Credit and Development Forum (CDF)   95

System of NGOs Micro-credit Program                                                       97

NGO-Government Relationship: Micro-credit Program in Perspective 100


Chapter –5

Program Intervention of NGOs for Rural Development:                   103


Historical Features of RDRS and BRAC                                                  103

RDRS Program Contents to Address People’s Needs                              108

People's Organization and Mobilization                                                   110

Women's Right and Gender Awareness                                                    112

Education                                                                                                     113

Primary Health Education and Services                                                    113

Agriculture                                                                                                   114

Employment Generations                                                                           115

Environmental Management and Community Resource Mobilization   116

Disaster Preparedness, Management and Development of Vulnerable   117


Micro-credit Program                                                                                  118

BRAC Program Contents to Address People’s Needs                             120

Rural Development Program                                                                      122

Education Program                                                                                      134

Health and Population Program                                                                 135

Urban Program                                                                                            137

Other Programs of BRAC                                                                           138

Basic Features in Program Intervention of the NGOs                              139

Position of Credit in the Program Intervention                                         144


Chapter – 6

Organizational Capability of the NGOs: RDRS and BRAC               151

Organization System of RDRS                                                                  151

Human Resource System of RDRS                                                           153

Operating Resources of RDRS                                                                   155

Organization Structure of BRAC                                                               159

Human Resource System of BRAC                                                           163

Operating Resources of BRAC                                                                  166

General Features of the Organizational Capabilities of RDRS and BRAC                                                                                                                      169


Chapter – 7

Development Program Management System of RDRS and BRAC   173

RDRS-Rangpur Dinajpur Rural Service Development Planning of RDRS                                                                                                                      173

Management of People’s Organization RDRS                                          174

Credit Operation of RDRS                                                                         176

Loan Disbursement System                                                                        178

Loan Disbursement at Upazila Office                                                        180

Realization of Loan                                                                                     181

Recovery of Default Loan                                                                          182

Supervision and Monitoring system of RDRS                                         182

Development Planning of BRAC                                                              184

BRAC Management of People's Organization                                          185

Micro-credit Operation of BRAC                                                              187

Approval of Loan                                                                                        187

Loan Disbursement                                                                                     188

Realization of Loan                                                                                     188

Realization of Default Loan                                                                       189

Supervision and Monitoring system of BRAC                                         189

Basic Characteristic Features of Program                                                  191

Management of RDRS and BRAC                                                            191


Chapter – 8

An Analysis of NGOs’ Role in Rural Development                             195

Goal Structure of NGO’s Rural Development Efforts                              195

Sectors of Investment                                                                                  196

System of Credit Management                                                                   197

Change in the Rural System                                                                       198

Organic Solidarity                                                                                       204

Institutional and Operational Issues                                                          208

Organizational Development                                                                      208

Participation in Designing and Implementing Program Activities          210

Self-reliance, Sustainability and Displacement versus Commitment      211

Subtracting Resources from the Rural Economy                                      215


Chapter 9

Concluding Remarks                                                                                219

Alternative Intervention Strategy                                                               221

Institutional Arrangement for Community Participation                         222

Partnership between NGOs and Group Members                                     223

Repayment Schedule as per the Nature of the Projects                            223

Investment in Productive Sectors                                                              224

Enhancing Professional and Facilitating Role of NGOs                          224

Sustainability Issue                                                                                     225

Acceptance                                                                                                   226

Financial Sustainability                                                                              226


Annexture                                                                                                    229


Bibliography                                                                                                241