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Books     Social Sciences     Participatory Forestry in Bangladesh Practices among Selected Ethnic Communities in Chittagong Hill Tracts
Participatory Forestry in Bangladesh Practices among Selected Ethnic Communities in Chittagong Hill Tracts

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Book Code : 978-984-926

Price : 600


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Acknowledgments                                                                                       vii    

Forward                                                                                                        ix

Abbreviations                                                                                            xvii

 

Chapter 1                                                                                                   19    

Introduction                                                                                               19

The Background to PFM in Bangladesh                                                      20

PF for Poverty Reduction and Participation                                                 22

The CHT People and their Livelihood                                                         24

Research Problem                                                                                        25

Research Objectives                                                                                     28

Structure of the book                                                                                   28

Limitations of the Study                                                                              31

 

Chapter 2                                                                                                   33

Forests and People in Bangladesh Forest Management                         33

Introduction                                                                                               33

An Overview of Forests in Bangladesh with Special Reference to CHT      34

     The history of forest management in the CHT region                             35

          Pre-colonial Era: Pre-Mughal Era                                                      36

          Pre-colonial Era: Mughal Era                                                             40

          Colonial Era: East India Company                                                     41

          Colonial Era: British Government                                                      46

          Post-colonial Era: Pre-independence (Pakistan Era)                           56

          Post-colonial Era: Post-independence (Bangladesh Era)                    59

     Forest policies in Bangladesh: A historical synthesis                              61

          British Colonial Policy                                                                       62

          Forest Policy, 1894                                                                            63

          Forest Policy, 1955                                                                            64

          Forest Policy, 1962                                                                            65

          National Forest Policy, 1979                                                             67

          National Forest Policy, 1994                                                             68

     Forest acts, rules and regulations                                                            70

     The major forest types                                                                            71

          Hill Forests                                                                                        72

          In-land Sal Forests                                                                             72

          Tidal Mangrove Forests                                                                     72

          Forest Cover and Status                                                                     73

     The CHT People                                                                                     75

          Ethnic communities                                                                           76

          Ethnic origin                                                                                      76

          Group identification features                                                             77

          The CHT case in particular                                                                79

               Population                                                                                    79

               Religions of the CHT people                                                        81

               Ethnicity, Cultivation and Economy                                             82

               Traditional Agricultural Practices: Jhuming                                  84

               Languages                                                                                    87

Conclusions                                                                                                 87

 

Chapter 3                                                                                                   91

The Currency of Participatory Forestry                                                  91

Introduction                                                                                                 91

Concepts and Nature of PF                                                                          92

Land and Tree Tenure                                                                                 96

The Role of Forestry Organizations and Policy                                           98

The Role of Local Organizations                                                                 99

Social Relations and Power Structure                                                        101

Market Opportunities                                                                                 103

Role of Donor Agencies                                                                            104

Global Focus                                                                                             105

Regional Factors                                                                                        107

Bangladesh Perspectives                                                                            108

     PF activities in Bangladesh                                                                   110

          Betagi-Pomora Community Forestry Project                                   110

          Forest Extension Service Scheme                                                    111

          Community Forestry Project                                                            111

          Upazila Afforestation and Nursery Development Project                 112

          Forestry Master Plan                                                                        113

          Forest Resource Management Project                                              114

          Coastal Greenbelt Project (1995-2002)                                            114

          Forestry Sector Project (1998-2004)                                               114

          NGO Interventions in Social Forestry                                              115

     Studies on People’s Participation in Bangladesh                                   117

     Selected major PF programmes in CHT                                                123

          Farming System Research and Development (FSRD) Programme   123

          Integrated Afforestation and Jhumia Rehabilitation in the 

          Unclassified State Forests of CHT                                                   125

          Afforestation and Settlement in the Unclassed State Forests of

          CHT (2nd Phase)                                                                             129

          Afforestation and Rehabilitation of Jhumia Families in the

          USF and Reserved Forest Land of CHT (3rd Phase)                       132

          Forestry Sector Project                                                                    135

          Upland Settlement Project (Phase 1)                                                137

          Upland Settlement Project (Phase 2)                                                140

          Village Common Forest (VCF) Project                                            141

          Horticulture Development Project                                                    143

          Sustainable Hill Cultivation Programme                                          146

Conclusion                                                                                                148

Chapter 4                                                                                                 151

The Research Design and Methodology                                                151

Introduction                                                                                               151

Framework of the Study                                                                            152

Methodological Aspects                                                                             155

     Study Phases                                                                                        156

     Phase I                                                                                                  157

          Study Projects, Locations and Villages                                            157

     Phase II                                                                                                165

          Techniques and Tools of Data Collection                                        166

     Phase III                                                                                               175

          Strategies for Data Processing and Analysis                                    175

 

Chapter 5                                                                                                 177

Empirical Analyses, Observations and Discussion                                  177

Introduction                                                                                               177

     General Issues                                                                                      177

          Participants’ gender, ethnicity and religion                                      178

          Participant age, family size and education                                        180

          Land tenure status                                                                            183

          Land use                                                                                          184

          Discussion of general issues                                                            187

     Income Generation                                                                               188

          Income of the participants                                                                188

               Income Variations among Organizations                                    192

               Relationship Characteristics among the Organizations                193

               Level of Farm Income                                                                196

          Farm income components                                                                197

               Organization-wise Variations in Farm Income Components       198

               Farm Income Component Levels                                                199

               Relationships among the Farm Income Components                  201

          Forestry income                                                                               203

               Organization-wise Variation in Forest Income Components       204

               Forest Income Component Levels                                              205

               Relationships between Forest Income Components                    207

          Participants’ comments regarding economic upliftment                   209

          Discussions about income generation                                              210

     Expenditure Patterns                                                                             212

          Expenditure patterns of the participants                                           212    

               Organization-wise Variations in Expenditure                              213

               Expenditure Component Levels                                                  215

               Relationships among the Income and Expenditure Components 215

          Farm expenditure components                                                         215

               Organization-wise Variation among the Farm

               Expenditure Components                                                           223

               Farm Expenditure Component Levels                                         224    

               Relationships among Farm Expenditure Components                 227

          Forestry expenditure components                                                    229

               Organization-wise Variations among Forestry

               Expenditure Components                                                           230

               Forestry Expenditure Component Levels                                    231

               Relationships among Forestry Expenditure Components            232

          Social expenditure                                                                           235

               Organization-wise Variation among Social

               Expenditure Components                                                           235

               Relationships among Social Expenditure Components               236

     Discussion about expenditure patterns                                                  239

     Participation                                                                                          244

          Opportunity indicators                                                                     244

               Decentralization                                                                          244

               Linkages                                                                                     245

               Flexibility                                                                                   246

               Incentives                                                                                   246

          Prevalence indicators                                                                       247

               Decision Making and Implementation                                        247

               Monitoring and Evaluation                                                         249

               Benefit Sharing                                                                           250

     PF Achievements                                                                                  251

          Economic welfare                                                                            251

               Income, Employment and Associated Opportunities                   251

               Environmental Sustainability                                                      252

          Social development                                                                          255

               Human Capital Development                                                      255

               Social Capital and Inclusion                                                        256

          Good governance                                                                            358

               Participation and Involvement                                                    258

               Observance of Contracts and Agreements                                  259

               Administration, Technical Design, Extension                                  

                Services & Bureaucracy                                                             260    

               Election of Leadership                                                                261

 

Chapter 6                                                                                                 263 

Summary, Implications, and Clues on Improvement                            263

Introduction                                                                                               263

General and Crosscutting Issues                                                                264

     Gender Balance in Participant Selection                                                264

     Community Consideration in Participant Selection                               265

     Religious Harmony                                                                               266

     Participant Age Criteria                                                                         267

     Family Size                                                                                           267

     Expanding PF Practices in High Hills                                                   268

     Land Tenure                                                                                         268

     GO and NGO Linkages                                                                        270

     Inter-sectoral Coordination                                                                   270

Economic Upliftment                                                                                 271

     Income of the Respondents                                                                   271

     Land and Farming Intensity                                                                  271

     Farming Income                                                                                   273

     Forestry Income                                                                                   273

     Income from Bamboo                                                                           274

     Agriculture and Livestock Income                                                        275

     Farming Components                                                                           275

     Off-farm Income                                                                                  275

Expenditures of the Respondents                                                               276

     Farm Expenditure                                                                                 277

     Forestry Expenditure                                                                            278

     Social Expenditure                                                                                279

Participation                                                                                               280

     Decentralization                                                                                    281

     Linkages                                                                                               281

     Flexibility                                                                                             281

     Incentives                                                                                             281

     Decision Making                                                                                  281

     Monitoring and Evaluation                                                                   282

     Benefit Sharing                                                                                     282

PF Achievements                                                                                       282

     Economic Welfare                                                                                283

     Social Upliftment                                                                                  284

     Good Governance                                                                                284

Summary and Conclusions                                                                        285

     Major Observations and Findings                                                         287

     Key Recommendations                                                                         292

 

Chapter 7                                                                                                 299

Recapitulation and Epilogue                                                                      299

 

Bibliography                                                                                             305

 

Index           33