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Books     Law     An Introduction to The Constitution of Bangladesh
An Introduction to The Constitution of Bangladesh

Written By : Mahbubul Islam

Book Code : 978-984-922

Price : 400

Mahbubul Islam

Chapter One                                                                                            17

Introducing the Constitution of Bangladesh                                      17             

Definition of Constitution                                                                       17

Sources of the Constitution                                                                     18

Methods of Establishing Constitution                                                    19

Classifications of the Constitution                                                         20                     

Classification of the Constitution based on the nature and form             

of the state and its governance                                                                22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

Historical Background of Bangladesh Constitution                              24                                                                                                                               

Interim Constitution in Bangladesh                                                        26                   

Main Features of the Proclamation of Independence                            28                                                                                                                                

Making of the Constitution of Bangladesh                                            29              

Salient Features of the Constitution of Bangladesh                              31        

Chapter Two                                                                                            35

Supremacy of the Constitution                                                             35

Parliamentary Supremacy                                                                        35

Constitutional Supremacy                                                                       35

Constitutional Supremacy and Judicial Review                                    37

Constitutional Supremacy and Judicial Review in Bangladesh           38

Chapter Three                                                                                         41

Preamble to the Constitution                                                                41

What is Preamble?                                                                                    41                                 

Is preamble a part of the Constitution?                                                   42                 

Is preamble a part of the Constitution of Bangladesh?                         42     

Significance of The preamble                                                                  43                       

Preamble and Interpretation of the Constitution                                    47         

Chapter Four                                                                                           51

Fundamental Principles of State Policy                                              51

Meaning of Fundamental Principles of State Policy                             51                     

Justiciable Vs. Non-Justiciable                                                            52                    

Features of Fundamental Principles of State Policy                              55           

Significance of fundamental Principles                                                  55                      

Fundamental Principles related to the establishment of a welfare state (Economic Equality)                                                                                56                                  

Fundamental Principles related to social and educational upliftment  56

Fundamental Principles pertaining to administrative matters               57

Fundamental Principles for international Peace                                    57                                    

Provisions of Fundamental Principles of State Policy                          57

Fundamental Principles V. Fundamental Rights: Determining the Superiority                                                                                                59                                                                                                                                                                                      Constitutional Significance of Fundamental Principles       

Fundamental Principles as a guide to the interpretation                       61                


Chapter Five                                                                                            63

Fundamental Rights                                                                              63                            

Human Rights                                                                                           63                                  

Fundamental Rights                                                                                 65                               

Features of Fundamental Rights                                                             66                    

Distinction between Fundamental Rights and Human Rights              67        

Characteristics of Fundamental rights                                                    68               

Types of Fundamental Rights                                                                 69                    

Reasonable Restrictions on Fundamental Rights                                  72          

Sanctity of Fundamental Rights                                                              75                  

Chapter Six                                                                                              79

Expanding Dimensions of “Right to Life”                                         79

Right to life includes ‘Right to health and longevity’                           80                

Right to Life includes ‘Right to Shelter’                                                81                        

Slum Dwellers’ Right to Shelter under Right to life                              82      

Right to life includes ‘Right to a healthy environment’                        82     

Right to life includes ‘Right to livelihood’                                            83        

Right to life’ includes ‘Right to necessary condition of life’                84

Approach of India and Pakistan regarding “Right to Life’                   85

Chapter Seven                                                                                         87

Preventive Detention under Constitution of Bangladesh                 87                          

Definition of Preventive detention                                                         87                                                                                                                                                                       Constitutional Provisions regarding Preventive detention                   96 

Nature and Justification of Preventive Detention                                  89     

Scope of Abuse of Power under the Provision of Preventive detention            91                                                 

Report by the Law Commission on the Provisions Relating to

Preventive Detention under the Special Powers Act 1974                   93                              

Legal Remedies against Preventive Detention                                     101         

Conclusion                                                                                             103                             

Chapter Eight                                                                                        105

The President of Bangladesh                                                              105    

Status of President                                                                                 105                               

Oath or affirmation                                                                                 105                               

Immunity of the President                                                                     106                          

Prerogative of mercy                                                                              106                           

Eligibility                                                                                                106                                     

Conditions for Presidency                                                                     107                         

Tenure of the President                                                                          107                          

Resignation and Vacancy                                                                      107                        

Appointments by President                                                                   108                       

Election of the President                                                                        108                           

Impeachment of the President                                                               108             

Removal of President on ground of incapacity                                   110

Powers and Functions of the President                                                111                 

Duties of the President                                                                           114                            

Is the President bound by Prime Minister’s Advice?                          115       

Chapter Nine                                                                                         117

Prime Minister and the Cabinet                                                        117

Prime Minister and the Cabinet                                                            117                        

Composition of the Cabinet                                                                  118                        

Status of the Prime Minister in the Cabinet                                         118               

Powers and Functions of the Prime Minister                                       119             

Collective Responsibility of Ministers                                                 121             

The Cabinet                                                                                            122                        

Functions of the Cabinet                                                                       122                         

Tenure of office of Prime Minister                                                       122                  

Tenure of office of other Ministers                                                       123                                                                                                                                                                 

Chapter Ten                                                                                           125

The Legislature                                                                                     125       

Composition of the Parliament                                                             125                

Qualifications and Disqualifications for election to Parliament         126

Conditions for Vacating Seats                                                              127                  

Bar against Double Membership                                                          128                     

Sessions and Quorum                                                                            128                         

Privileges and Immunities                                                                     129                          

Speaker and Deputy Speaker                                                                129                         

Vacation of Office of the Speaker or Deputy Speaker                        129                                                                                                                              

Standing Committees of Parliament                                                     130                          

Debate on Article 70                                                                              131

Article 70 and the freedom of expression of the Members of Parliament: An appraisal                                                                       132                       

The powers and functions of the Parliament                                        134           

Parliament Secretariat                                                                            135                           

Chapter Eleven                                                                                     137

The Supreme Court of Bangladesh                                                    137

The Supreme Court of Bangladesh                                                       137                     

Number of Judges                                                                                  137                          

Appointment of the Judges                                                                   138

Tenure of office of Judges                                                                     138                   

The Jurisdiction of High Court Division                                             139                

The Jurisdiction of Appellate Division                                                140                

Some Functions of the Supreme Court under Constitution                142 

The subordinate Courts                                                                         143                        

Control and discipline of subordinate courts                                       143            

Chapter Twelve                                                                                     145

Writ                                                                                                         145

Definition of Writ                                                                                  145                           

How Writs are issued in our Country under Constitution                  145   

Various types of Writs                                                                           146                         

Writ of Habeas Corpus                                                                          146                          

When the writ of Habeas corpus is issued?                                         147              

Writ of Mandamus                                                                                 147                         

Writ of prohibition                                                                                 148                              

Writ of Certiorari                                                                                    149                                

The writ of quo warranto                                                                       150                           

Chapter Thirteen                                                                                  153

Public Interest Litigation                                                                    153

What is Public Interest Litigation?                                                       153                  

Liberalising the Locus Standi: Evolution of PIL                                 155     

Development of PIL in India                                                                 156                         

PIL in Bangladesh                                                                                  158                       

Legal basis of PIL in Bangladesh                                                         160                    

Who can file a PIL?                                                                               164                           

Abuse of PIL                                                                                          166                                

Conclusion                                                                                             168                                  

Chapter Fourteen                                                                                 169

Independence of Judiciary                                                                  169

Independence of Judiciary in Bangladesh                                           170

Conclusion                                                                                             176

Chapter Fifteen                                                                                     177

Ordinance Making Power of the President                                      177

Historical Background                                                                           177                             

Ordinance in different Countries                                                          178                       

Ordinance Making Provisions in Bangladesh Constitution               180           

Limitations on Ordinance making                                                        181                    

Conclusion                                                                                             182                               

Chapter Sixteen                                                                                    183

Emergency Provisions                                                                         183

Definition of emergency                                                                        183                          

Justification of inserting Emergency Provision                                   184           

Classification of Emergencies                                                               186                

Who can declare the proclamation of emergency?                              187         

When the president can declare the proclamation of emergency?     188

When a proclamation of emergency is no more valid                         189     

Position of Fundamental Rights during Emergency                            190     

Chapter Seventeen                                                                                193

Amendments in Bangladesh Constitution                                        193

Necessity of Constitutional Amendment                                             193              

Provision Concerning Amendment of Bangladesh Constitution       194                                                 

First Amendment                                                                                    194                              

Second Amendment                                                                               200

Fourth Amendment                                                                                200                            

Fifth Amendment                                                                                   200                              

Sixth Amendment                                                                                  202

Seventh Amendment                                                                              202

Eighth Amendment                                                                                203

Ninth Amendment                                                                                  205

Tenth Amendment                                                                                 209

Eleventh Amendment                                                                            209

Twelfth Amendment                                                                              210

Thirteenth Amendment                                                                          212

Fourteenth Amendment                                                                         215

Fifteen Amendments                                                                              216

Sixteenth Amendment                                                                           219

Chapter Eighteen                                                                                  225

Doctrine of Basic Structure                                                                 225                                                                                                                                                                            

Anwar Hussain .Vs. Bangladesh or 8th Amendment Case                 225

Impact of the application of Basic Structure Theory                           228      

Conclusion                                                                                             230

Chapter Nineteen                                                                                  231

Rule of Law                                                                                           231

Elements of the Rule of Law                                                                 231

Development of the concept of Rule of Law                                       232

Traditional or Old Concept of rule of law                                            233

Deycian Concept of Rule of Law                                                         233

The Modern Concept of Rule of Law                                                   234

Rule of law in the International Documents                                        235

Necessary Recommendations                                                               237                        

Conclusion                                                                                             237                     

Chapter Twenty                                                                                    239

Election Commission                                                                           239

Establishment of Election Commission                                               239

Composition of election commission                                                   239                 

Powers and Functions of election commission                                   240           

Staff of Election Commission                                                               240                        

Qualifications for registration as voter                                                 241                

Time for holding elections                                                                    241                   

Validity of election law and elections                                                  242                  

Executive authorities to assist Election Commission                         243         

Chapter Twenty One                                                                            245

Administrative Tribunal                                                                     245

The advantage of a tribunal                                                                   245                        

Administrative Tribunal and Bangladesh Constitution                      245   

Characteristics of Administrative Tribunal                                          248

The Distinctions between Administrative Tribunal and Court          248

The Functions of Administrative Tribunals in Bangladesh                249

Establishment of Administrative Tribunal                                           249

Jurisdiction of the Administrative Tribunal                                         250

Establishment of Administrative Appellate Tribunal                          250

Jurisdiction and Power of the Administrative Appellate Tribunal                  251                                                                             

Chapter Twenty Two                                                                            253

The Concept of Natural Justice                                                          253 

What is meant by Natural Justice?                                                        253                    

History of the growth of the Concept of Natural Justice                    256    

Development of the concept of natural justice in modern legal sphere          257

The Twin Pillars of the rules of natural justice                                    258

The Audi Alteram Partem Rule                                                             259

The Nemo Judex in Causa Sua Rule                                                    266

The concept of natural justice and Bangladesh Constitution             269

Concept of Natural Justice to diminish arbitrary Exercise of Discretionary power                                                                               270                           

Conclusion                                                                                             276                                  


Chapter Twenty Three                                                                         277

Local Government                                                                                277

Definition of Local Government                                                           277                       

Evolution of local Government in Bangladesh                                   278

Pre-colonial period                                                                                 278                         

British Colonial period                                                                        279

Pakistan Period                                                                                    280

Local Government Experiments in Bangladesh                                  281

Local Government in the Bangladesh Constitution                            283

Existing Classification of Local Government in Bangladesh             284

Conclusion                                                                                             284                          

Chapter Twenty Four                                                                          285

Ombudsman                                                                                          285

Origin of the Word "Ombudsman"                                                       285                                                                                                                       

Definition of Ombudsman                                                                     285                             

Features of Ombudsman                                                                        286                                                                                                                       

Ombudsman in the Constitution of Bangladesh                                  290          

Legal position of Ombudsman in Bangladesh                                     292

Conclusion                                                                                             292                 


Selected Bibliography           293-296